GNU/LINUX & BSD MAIN DISTROS
ABOUT GNU/LINUX & BSD
GNU/Linux and BSD distros are both a collection of UNIX-like operating systems (OSs). All GNU/Linux distros are running on a linux kernel, whereas a BSD distro is running on a BSD-kernel. There are more than 500 active GNU/Linux distros, most of which are based on one or more of the 8 main distros below, while some are independent and built from scratch. On the other hand, only about 10-15 BSD distroer exist. BSD distros are generally targeted more experienced and tech savvy users, and less hardware is supported compared to GNU/Linux, which supports a huge amount of hardware.
Some GNU/Linux projects die and new ones arise on an almost daily basis. Obviously, it is impossible to to cover them all here.
GNU/Linux and BSD distros are both running the same Desktop Environments (DEs) eg. KDE Plasma, GNOME 3, Cinnamon, MATE, Xfce etc., while Lumina is a DE developed for BSD/TrueOS. That means most users will not notice whether they are running on a Linux or BSD kernel
One of the most noticable differences between a GNU/Linux and a BSD OS is that GNU/linux distros are composed by many software projects led by different developmemt teams, whereas a BSD distro is a more complete OS where the kernel is more integrated in the OS and where the same development team takes care of the entire OS, so the structure in that sense is more similar to the structure of a Windows OS.
In order to help you choose the right GNU/Linux or BSD distro we have selected the most popular GNU/Linux and BSD distros.
Find your desired distro below.
ARCH & other ARCH-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: ROLLING
Arch Linux is a rolling-release OS, which means that the user is continuously receiving the latest software updates on a rolling basis. This OS is therefore suitable for those who want the latest and most bleeding-edge software.
Antergos Arch Bluestar Chakra KaOS Manjaro
NuRunner Netrunner Rolling Revenge OS SwagArch
DEBIAN & other DEBIAN-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR, SEMI-ROLLING, ROLLING
Debian GNU/Linux is a rock-solid OS and one of the oldest Linux distros out there. Debian exists in three main branches: Debian Stable, Debian Testing and Debian Unstable (sid). Debian is highly used in server environments (Debian Stable) and is known to be one of the most stable distros. However, that stability comes at a price. Debian has a much slower release cycle than most other distros. This means that the software is old and outdated, so if you are looking for a distro offering the latest bleeding-edge software Debian might not be the right distro for you. However, you can also install Debian Testing or upgrade Debian Stable to Debian Testing or Debian Unstable (sid) instead of to get more up-to-date software and a distro following a semi-rolling or rolling release model instead of the regular model in Debian Stable. It is not possible directly to install Debian Unstable directly as no iso images are available. However, you can install Debian Stable or Debian Testing from iso images and then change the repository to unstable (sid) and upgrade the system to Debian Unstable.
Debian Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) Netrunner
Deepin Kali Endless OS Sparky Linux
menuFEDORA/REDHAT ENTERPRISE LINUX (RHEL)
FEDORA/RHEL & other FEDORA/RHEL-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR, SEMI-ROLLING
RHEL is a rock-solid OS used mainly in server environments where it is very popular. A 100% free-of-charge server OS based on RHEL is CentOS, which can be used if you don't want to pay for a RHEL software License. Fedora is the upstream testing edition of RHEL suitable for both Workstation/desktop and Server use. It exists in both a Cloud, Desktop/Workstation and Server edition. If you want a more up-to-date server with the latest software versions Fedora Server is the way to go. However, it will not be as stable as RHEL or CentOS, which offers older software versions. Fedora is pretty much up-to-date compared to Debian, however, if you still don't think your software is enogh bleeding-edge then you can upgrade to Fedora Rawhide which follows a rolling-like release model. However, using Rawhide is usually not recommended as it is the development version of Fedora and the foundation of what will become the next Fixed/Regular Fedora release. You can also install the latest Fedora Rawhide branched which is the Alpha or Beta version of the upcoming Fedora version. This is pretty bleeding-edge although not as bleeding-edge edge as Fedora Rawhide itself. Even though the latest stable version of Fedora is pretty bleeding-edge it is not as bleeding edge as Arch Linux unless you upgrade to Rawhide. Since Rawhide is the development version and it is not designed, you should probably use an Arch Linux distro instead.
Fedora Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) CentOS Korora
GENTOO & other GENTOO-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: SEMI-ROLLING, ROLLING
Gentoo Linux is a rolling-release OS, which means that the user is continuously receiving the latest software updates on a rolling basis. This OS is therefore suitable for those who want the latest and most bleeding-edge software. However, it has a reputation of being one of the toughest distros to install and configure. If you want to try a Gentoo distro, it is recommended to start out with the more user-friendly gentoo-based distros named Sabayon
Gentoo Sabayon Calculate
MAGEIA & Other MANDRAKE/MANDRIVA-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR, SEMI-ROLLING
Mageia is a user-friendly GNU/Linux distro based on the now discontinued system Mandriva and Mandrake. Mageia is an RPM-based distro similar to openSUSE and Fedora. Mageia uses URPMI as package manager for handling updates and installation of RPM software packages. However, Mageia has recently adopted the DNF package manager used by Fedora, so probably DNF will replace URPMI in the near future. For a long time Mageia was in top 5 among the most popular linux distros on Distrowatch.com. In addition to Mageia, we also have other distros based on Mageia/Mandriva, e.g. the russian based ROSA, OpenMandriva Lx and PcLinuxOS.
MAGEIA OPENMANDRIVA Lx PCLINUXOS ROSA
menuOPENSUSE/SUSE LINUX ENTERPRISE (SLE)
OPENSUSE/SLE & other OPENSUSE/SLE-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR, ROLLING
SLE is a popular GNU/Linux distro used for Server and Workstation use in Enterprises. SLE itself is non-free. However you can use openSUSE for free for both Server and Desktop/Workstation use similar to Fedora versus RHEL. OpenSUSE is the opstream testing version of SLE, so if you want to test the latest software on both server and desktop choose openSUSE instead of SLE. This is similar to Fedora versus RHEL and thus openSUSE is less stable than SLE, which uses older software. openSUSE exists in two editions. A regular release named openSUSE LEAP with older software and openSUSE Tumbleweed which follows a rolling-release model offering the latest and most bleeding-edge software continuously. openSUSE Tumbleweed is a stabilized snapshot of openSUSE Factory which is similar to Fedora Rawhide. However, Fedora does not offer a stabilized snapshot of Rawhide.
openSUSE GECKOLINUX Fyre Linux SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLE)
Slackware & other Slackware-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR
Slackware is the oldest GNU/Linux distros, and thus the most UNIX-like Linux distro out there. It does not offer the latest bleeding-edge software. However, it is possible to compile new software on top of that
UBUNTU & other UBUNTU-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR
Ubuntu is a rock-solid OS developed by Canonical. It is based on Debian GNU/Linux, which is one of the oldest Linux distros out there. Debian exists in three main branches: Debian Stable, Debian Testing and Debian Unstable (sid). Debian is highly used in server environments (Debian Stable) and is known to be one of the most stable distros. However, that stability comes at a price. Debian has a much slower release cycle than most other distros. This means that the software is old and outdated, so if you are looking for a distro offering the latest bleeding-edge software Debian might not be the right distro for you. However, you can also install Debian Testing or upgrade Debian Stable to Debian Testing or Debian Unstable (sid) instead of to get more up-to-date software and a distro following a semi-rolling or rolling release model instead of the regular model in Debian Stable. It is not possible directly to install Debian Unstable directly as no iso images are available. However, you can install Debian Stable or Debian Testing from iso images and then change the repository to unstable (sid) and upgrade the system to Debian Unstable.
Ubuntu Linux Mint elementary OS Feren OS Maui KDE neon
menuSOLUS OS & Other Independent GNU/Linux distros
SOLUS OS & Other Independent GNU/Linux distros
RELEASE MODEL: ROLLING, FIXED/REGULAR
Solus OS is a relatively new independent GNU/Linux project built from scratch and based on a rolling-release model to ensure that you continuously receive the latest software on a regular basis, just like with Arch Linux and other Arch-based distros. Solus OS focuses on user-friendliness. Solus OS used to be based on Debian but suddenly the project died out. Now, however, the same team is back with a new Solus OS. However, the software repository is still limited compared to Debian, Ubuntu and Arch Linux, because all software is built from scratch from the source code, but the amount of software keeps growning. Other independent distros might follow a fixed/regular release model too.
menuFREEBSD & Other BSD distros
FREEBSD & Other FREEBSD-based distros
RELEASE MODEL: FIXED/REGULAR, ROLLING
FreeBSD is the main distro among the BSD distros. Compared to GNU/Linux where around 500 distros exist, there is only around 10 different BSD distros out there. FreeBSD is used in server environments but can also be installed on laptops and desktop computers. For Desktop use however, you might choose to install GhostBSD or TRUEOS instead. TrueOS is bot available for servers and desktops and the server edition of TrueOS is more user friendly and should be easier to install than FreeBSD. Other BSD distros such as NetBSD and openBSD focus on security. Finally, there is an Ubuntu variant based on FreeBSD which is named UbuntuBSD.
FreeBSD TrueOS GhostBSD NetBSD
GNU/Linux & BSD are blazingly fast Operating Systems (OSs) that are light on resources. Get more bang for the buck. These systems are rock-solid, stable and reliable offering high up-times. ie.
GNU/Linux & BSD offers supreme and efficient protection against Ransomware e.g. WannaCry and other malware, worms and viruses. These systems are so secure that you don't need to install anti-virus software. Usually a firewall is enabled by default, which is highly recommended though. GNU/Linux and BSD are as secure as it gets. Switch to a GNU/Linux or BSD distro today and stay secure.
Far most GNU/Linux & BSD distros are 100 free % to download, install and use. You never have to pay for software licenses anymore. These systems are highly customizable and offer multiple Desktop Environments (DEs) to choose from at login. The most popular DEs are KDE Plasma, GNOME 3 shell, Cinnamon, MATE, XFCE, LxQt, LXDE, Deepin DE and Budgie. With GNU/Linux and BSD you have full control of your OS.
Still not convinced ? Watch this video!
Do you want to become the next penguin in the Linux family?
PHARMATUXA offers a wide range of Life Science services. This includes consultancy within QA, Regulatory Affairs, bioinformatical immunology, design and optimization of vaccines.
PHARMATUXA offers a wide range of IT services. This includes consultancy within Deployment of GNU/Linux & BSD systems, setting up MES and IT-automation systems.
LIFE SCIENCE SERVICES
VACCINE DESIGN & BIG DATA-BASED VACCINE OPTIMIZATION
We have expertise within Pharma consulting - in particular when it comes to design and optimization of vaccines.
Our focus is to integrate in silico tools to facilitate the option to be able to test the product on computer software prior to testing the product on in-vitro cells or in-vivo in order to save companies for huge amounts annually. We focus on Mouse model data and we are planning to build a tool that can automatically predict which mouse model is the most appropriate and optimal to use for a particular vaccine, based on specific vaccine data inputs.
QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) & REGULATORY AFFAIRS (RA)
Pharmatuxa offers assistance within data-entry and data management of RIMS, QMS, LIMS, CTMS systems. We also offer consultancy to improve your computer validation procedures by ensuring that your Computerized Systems are in compliance with the GAMP5 guidelines.
BIOINFORMATICS & IMMUNO-DIAGNOSTICS
We have expertise within discovery of sequences for epitopes for vaccine design by using software tools (in silico) for finding epitopes - also for cancer vaccines. To do this we use open source software to detect and determine epitopes for a vaccine and take into account differences in vaccines design for different geographical populations (Africa, Asia, America etc.) immunological bioinformatics. We also use RT-qPCR and other methods for detection of biomarkers - which is relevant for diagnosing people who tends to become ill. (which ?).
OPTIMIZATION OF ANALYSIS METHODS
We also have expertise within optimization of Analysis methods. That includes optimization for stability using the methods DLS and DSC and optimization of immunoassays (ELISA) via methods like dot blot, western blot, flow cytometry, FACS, MSD and ELISPOT involving in vivo and in vitro assays to ensure stability and activity of drugs, e.g. stability and presence of APIs. Finally, we can assist with troubleshooting when using these methods.
DEPLOYMENT & CONFIGURATION OF GNU/LINUX & BSD SYSTEMS
We offer consultancy about which GNU/Linux or BSD distros to choose, based on your needs. Moreover, We help you install, deploy and configure your IT-infrastructure, this includes install and configure GNU/Linux or BSD as both servers and workstations. Finally, We can also help you install and configure mailservers and webserver stacks on GNU/Linux or BSD (LAMP or LEMP server stacks) based on Apache or the Nginx webserver respectively and security harden the LAMP/LEMP stacks afterwards.
IT-AUTOMATION & PROCESS OPTIMIZATION
We also offer consultancy about how to to optimize your existing Pharmaceutical Manufacturing processes or implement a new IT-automation setup, which are in compliance with and follows the GAMP5 guidelines. We will help setting up free or low cost ERP, QMS, RIMS, LIMS and CTMS solutions on top of a stable GNU/Linux or BSD platform.
Are you interested in a future career in PHARMATUXA and contribute to building up the company ?. Feel free to contact us. We are looking for innovative colleagues with expertise within IT, IT-automation and design of vaccines and immunotherapeutic medicine. We look forward to hearing from you.
Are you interested in switching to a GNU/Linux or BSD distro ? Feel free to contact us for a demo of this awesome OS. We will offer consultancy to make sure you get the right distro and help you deploy and configure these systems on your PCs and Laptops at very affordable prices.
Jesper Larsen, CEOmore_vert
M.Sc. Engineering, Biotechnology
Jesper Larsen, CEOclose
I have a background as engineer from DTU where I graduated in July 2014. During my education I have acquired solid knowledge and experience with Systems Biology, Bioinformatics and Metabolic Engineering and genetic engineering and learned how to apply these tools to design cell factories, biosustainable biofuels and vaccines. Moreover, I am a GNU/Linux geek and spends most of my time trying to stay up to date on the latest IT trends.